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A software bug could be something as menial as a misaligned image on a landing page, or as serious as a mobile app spontaneously crashing during use. Here are some explanations:
“A software bug is a problem causing a program to crash or produce invalid output. The problem is caused by insufficient or erroneous logic. A bug can be an error, mistake, defect or fault, which may cause failure or deviation from expected results.” (techopedia)
“A software bug is defined as an error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.” (steelkiwi)
“A Software DEFECT / BUG is a condition in a software product which does not meet a software requirement (as stated in the requirement specifications) or end-user expectation (which may not be specified but is reasonable). In other words, a defect is an error in coding or logic that causes a program to malfunction or to produce incorrect/unexpected results.” (softwaretestingfundamentals)
While the definition of a bug may vary slightly, one thing is clear: in order to prevent the large variety of issues that can occur before, during, or after a product launch, companies and individuals must be proactive in making sure that their applications are meeting the high standards of consumers today. How can they do this? By running thorough QA tests to find rampant bugs.
At test IO, we organize our bugs by type (visual, content, usability) and severity (critical, high, low):
The type of testing you choose depends on what you're looking to find:
Functional Testing: checking that all functions work from a user perspective
Exploratory Testing: unscripted testing that allows testers the freedom to go down multiple different -- perhaps less common or intuitive -- paths to identify bugs that would otherwise slip through the cracks of a scripted test (test IO provides a variety of exploratory test types, listed below)
Beta Testing: testing pre-release
Black Box Testing: testing with zero knowledge of how the software has been put together
Mobile Testing: testing on mobile devices, such as iPhone and Android
Wearables Testing: testing on wearable devices, such as Apple Watches
IoT Testing: Internet of Things; testing a variety of connected devices
As you can see, there are a variety of ways to test software, all useful given the right situation. Matching the proper form of testing to your needs is the first and most important step; after that, it's all about finding the right method to test.
While it will probably never be possible to create the "perfect software," devoid of any kind of software issue, you can certainly get closer to maintaining near-perfect software by making a thorough QA process part of your development routine. We prefer crowdtesting here at test IO, but we may be biased.